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De librije van Hulst

dinsdag, 11 november 2014

Lang voor de Zeeuwse Bibliotheek, en zelfs lang voor de Provinciale Bibliotheek van Zeeland, hebben er in deze provincie bibliotheken bestaan die min of meer voor algemeen gebruik toegankelijk waren. Van deze collecties is meestal bitter weinig bekend, en soms kunnen we het bestaan ervan alleen maar vermoeden. Een enkele keer is de ruimte bewaard gebleven, maar zijn de boeken zelf door omstandigheden verdwenen. Hieronder volgt een indruk van de librije van Hulst, een stad die zich in de 15e en 16e eeuw bij Vlaanderen rekende. De gebruikers van die bibliotheek zouden het destijds wonderlijk gevonden hebben, dat hun boekenschat bij Zeeland ingedeeld zou zijn.

LibrijeHulst

De librije is de verticale aanbouw aan de kerk precies achter de kale boom.

De Sint-Willibrorduskerk te Hulst, sinds 1935 basiliek, bezat in ieder geval sinds het begin van de 15e eeuw een “liberarie”. Deze bevond zich in een nog steeds bestaande, vermoedelijk eind 14e-eeuwse aanbouw met drie verdiepingen aan de noorderzijbeuk van het koor. In de vier hoeken van de kleine zaal op de begane grond zijn beeldhouwwerken te zien die lezende mannen voorstellen. In het vertrek daarboven, waar ze door een wenteltrap mee verbonden is, bevinden zich gebeeldhouwde symbolen van de vier evangelisten. De beelden hebben geen van alle geleden onder beeldenstormen. De wenteltrap leidt verder naar een onverlichte ruimte daar nog boven.

De librije bevatte aanvankelijk vooral gewijde en liturgische boeken, later ook geschriften van kerkvaders, andere theologische werken (onder meer van Thomas van Aquino) en boeken betreffende het kerkelijk recht. De exemplaren waren met kettingen aan lezenaars vastgemaakt. Een enkele maal werd een boek toch uitgeleend.* Het stadsarchief van Hulst beschikt over diverse kerkrekeningen betreffende aankopen en schenkingen uit de 15e en 16e eeuwen. De eerste bisschop van Gent, de Hulstenaar Cornelius Jansenius (1510-1576), liet bij testament zijn boekenverzameling aan zijn priesterneef Jan van Dale na, met de bedoeling dat ze na diens overlijden aan de librije van zijn geboortestad ten goede zouden komen.

Hulst en het omringende land, bekend onder de naam ‘De Vier Ambachten’, ruwweg het huidige Oost Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, ressorteerde tijdens de late Middeleeuwen weliswaar onder het graafschap Vlaanderen, maar hoorde kerkelijk bij het bisdom Utrecht. Bij de kerkelijke herindeling onder de regering van koning Philips II, werden de Vier Ambachten aan het nieuwe bisdom Gent toegevoegd.

Pas in november 1645 hebben de Staatse troepen Hulst ingenomen. De  kerk werd overgedragen aan de gereformeerden. De boekwerken werden uit de librije verwijderd en raakten over de Zuidelijke Nederlanden verspreid. Sommige perkamenten kwamen op het stadhuis terecht, waar enkele versneden werden voor het inbinden van registers en boeken, of voor het verstevigen van de rugband daarvan.*

In 1807, toen de koorkerk en het dwarsschip aan de katholieken teruggegeven werden, ging de voormalige librije als sacristie dienst doen. Later werd ze opslagruimte, maar thans wordt de benedenruimte ’s zomers als schatkamer van de basiliek ingericht en voor het publiek opengesteld.* Ook worden er tijdelijke tentoonstellingen gehouden. Voor de eerste verdieping en de zolder is voorlopig nog geen passende bestemming gevonden.

Over de geschiedenis en inhoud van de librije te Hulst zijn tot nog toe geen studies of artikelen verschenen. Pater Wilfried Brand, archivaris van het bisdom Breda, heeft een hand-out van een pagina geschreven, bestemd voor vrijwilligers van de basiliek die bezoekers rondleiden, en voor bezoekers van de librije. Deze wordt hieronder als bron van deze paragraaf vermeld.

* Vrij naar: W.B. (= Wilfried Brand), De librije in de basiliek van de H. Willibrordus te Hulst, [2008].

Overige literatuur:

K.J.J. Brand, Over de basiliek van de H. Willibrordus te Hulst en haar torens, Hulst 1994 wijdt op pagina 5 een alinea aan de “liberarie”.

In andere recente publicaties over de basiliek komt de librije niet aan de orde.

Dit is het verhaal van de librije van Hulst. Mogelijk zijn er ook librijen geweest in Tholen en Zierikzee. En natuurlijk in de abdij van Middelburg, namelijk boven de westelijke  kloostergang. Daar valt nog minder over te vertellen dan over Hulst.

Ondergetekende is gevraagd om een bijdrage te leveren aan een boek over librijen en oude bibliotheken in Nederland tot het jaar 1800.  Ik zal daarin de Zeeuwse situatie aan de orde stellen. Het bovenstaande is een voorproefje op dat lange artikel. Ik werd gegrepen door het verhaal van Hulst. Vandaar dat ik het graag nu alvast openbaar maak.

 

Marinus Bierens